The holy book of the Koran was sent to the Prophet Mohammed by Allah himself through the Archangel Gabriel (in Islam Jibreel). For 23 years, he transmitted parts of the Koran to the Prophet. During Mohammed’s lifetime, a written record of the Koran was not necessary, as any questions could be answered directly by the Prophet. But in times of the caliphs, there were first differences of opinion, which is why on the instruction of the third caliph Usman (644-656) the former personal secretary of the prophet, Zaid ibn Sabit, began to collect all records of the prophet in the year 650, in order to unite them in a book. At the same time, four other assistants collected records, interviewed individuals, and wrote their own versions of the text. Then all the texts were compared and summarized into a single one that was recorded, while all the other drafts were burned to avoid disagreement. 

In 656, rebels broke into the Caliph’s palace and stabbed him. Legend has it that at the time of his death, Caliph Usman was reading the Koran and soaked it in his blood. From that moment on, the Usman’s Koran is considered a sacred relic.

how koran of usman happen to be in tashkent?

In the 15th century, Usman’s Koran was brought to Samarkand. Legend has it that the relic was part of the spoils of war that Timur sent from his campaign from Basra to his capital. 

Until 1868, the Koran was kept in Samarkand. In the course of the conquest of Samarkand by Tsarist Russian troops, the Koran was bought by Major General Abramov and transferred to Governor-General Konstantin von Kaufman in Tashkent, who presented the manuscript as a gift to the Imperial Library in St. Petersburg. The manuscript immediately became an object of study for Orientalists, who in the course of their research confirmed that the Koran was actually written in the 7th century on the territory of present-day Iraq.

Koran Osman Tashkent
Khast-Imam Square. In the foreground is the Muy Mubarak Madrasah, where Usman’s Koran is currently kept

In 1917, the Usman’s Koran was handed over to the All-Russian Muslim Council, which was located in Ufa. Seven years later the manuscript was brought back to Uzbekistan and kept for a long time in the History Museum of Tashkent. Only after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the relict was ceremoniously handed over to the head of the Uzbek Muslims by the first President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Islam Karimov. Since then the Usman’s Koran has been exhibited in the Muy Muborak Madrasah.


Architectural Monuments in Tashkent

Miscellaneous

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